P S I C O A R M O N I C A M E N T E

promuove l'armonia psicoemotiva e relazionale nella Persona, nel gruppo e animali d'affezione

   Mag 30

Emozioni

  Le emozioni ci attraversano continuamente, in ogni istante della vita. Sentiamo spesso la necessità di ricercarle nelle più disparate attività, quali il cibo, il sesso, la musica, la lettura, l’arte,  in sport estremi, nell’assunzione di sostanze psicoattive e quant’altro, affinchè il nostro sistema nervoso rilasci tutta una serie di neurotrasmettitori come endorfine,  adrenalina, dopamina  che stimolino  ulteriori sensazioni.

 Cosa sono le emozioni e a cosa servono?

   Le emozioni sono stati mentali e fisiologici associati a stimoli naturali o appresi. Sono necessarie alla sopravvivenza dell’individuo rispetto sia all’ambiente esterno che a quello interiore. In termini evolutivi la loro principale funzione consiste nel rendere più efficace la reazione dell’individuo a situazioni in cui si renda necessaria una risposta immediata che non utilizzi processi cognitivi ed elaborazione cosciente.

 Le emozioni si possono suddividere in primarie (gioia, tristezza, paura, rabbia, sorpresa,  disgusto, interesse)  e secondarie (vergogna, colpa, imbarazzo, disprezzo, timidezza, orgoglio). Queste ultime si distinguono perchè legate all’autoconsapevolezza mentre le primarie sono più istintive ed immediate; geneticamente predeterminate così da essere manifestabili già alla nascita dell’individuo, mentre le secondarie sono ascrivibili più ai sentimenti.

 Le emozioni rivestono anche una funzione relazionale (comunicazione agli altri delle proprie reazioni psicofisiologiche) e una funzione auto regolatrice quale comprensione di tali modificazioni. Gli stimoli che le attivano hanno un carattere fisso nei meccanismi istintivi negli animali come osservato dagli etologi. Nei primati e nell’uomo la maggiore plasticità cerebrale consente la fase di “apprendistato emozionale”, in cui la risposta emotiva allo stimolo rimane invariata, ma se fosse conveniente per l’individuo, questi può  parzialmente controllarla  e/o dissimularla. 

 (continua…)

(Laura De Pasquale, Psy Dr)       

 

Immagini e file multimediali

Rif. bibliografici:

Rosenweigh, M. R., Leiman, A. L., Breedlove, M. S., (1996).  Biological Psychology, Sinauer Associates Inc. Ed it. Psicologia Biologica,  Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano

 

 

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