P S I C O A R M O N I C A M E N T E

promuove l'armonia psicoemotiva e relazionale nella Persona, nel gruppo e animali d'affezione

   Gen 27

Un sentimento nel “giorno della memoria”: la vergogna.

La vergogna è un’intensa multiforme emozione che può generare un profondo dolore. È legata ai vissuti di “aver perso la faccia” o peggio di “aver perso la dignità”. La sofferenza che ne deriva, coinvolge tutta la persona, sia a livello somatico con il rossore del viso e la postura, sia interiormente. 

La vergogna è associata al rapporto con l’altro e/o con un sé ideale. Si ha consapevolezza di essere osservati in maniera diversa da quella desiderabile con sentimenti di pena perché pregiudica l’immagine di sé rispetto agli altri e ci si sente improvvisamente indegni e immeritevoli.

La vergogna, come il senso di colpa, l’orgoglio e l’imbarazzo, sono per lo più reazioni emotive alla trasgressione di regole sociali nella relazione. Generano un’assunzione di responsabilità attraverso i sentimenti di auto-consapevolezza e giudizio che si prova per se stessi rispetto agli altri.                        

Essi sono comportamenti emotivi appresi prevalentemente durante il matèrnage (l’insieme di atteggiamenti e azioni racchiusi nel rapporto madre-figlio soprattutto nella prima infanzia) e nel proprio contesto culturale attraverso i processi di socializzazione. In tal modo il bambino impara a valutare, non solo le proprie esperienze emozionali ma anche quelle altrui. Egli conforma il proprio livello di autostima e di coscienza di sé, alle aspettative medie della cultura d’appartenenza, rendendolo capace di assumere il punto di vista, i criteri di valore degli altri ed anche le norme di gruppo. La vergogna quindi può diventare componente costitutiva della propria identità personale e costringerci a conoscersi attraverso ciò che si è o si pensa di essere per gli altri.

 

Liberi dal lager ma non dalla vergogna.

 

Primo Levi, nel racconto autobiografico “I sommersi e i salvati”, mette in evidenza un fenomeno assai singolare. Dopo la liberazione dal Lager, al termine della prigionia, coloro i quali avevano provato un senso di sollievo, furono solo i combattenti militari e politici che, in definitiva, avevano provato una minor sofferenza.                                                                             

Molti dei sopravvissuti provarono un senso di vergogna, di abbattimento generale, di disagio duraturo che, subito dopo la liberazione,  portò, molti di loro al suicidio.la vergogna

Nei Lager, scrive Levi, nessuno si toglieva la vita perché il suicidio viene inteso come un atto spiccatamente umano, non bestiale. Insito nel gesto estremo vi è la possibilità di scelta, mentre nei Lager non si sceglieva, si subiva. Il suicidio sembrava scaturire da un senso di colpa mentre nel Lager le punizioni continue, le intense umiliazioni, la vita che ricorda un vivere da bestie, soffocavano il senso di colpa a favore del sentimento di sopravvivenza. Lo scorrere del tempo si cristallizza, non si aveva tempo per  pensare alla morte. Si avevano solo continue e opprimenti urgenze nella lotta per la vita!               .                                            

Dopo la liberazione, i “salvati” soffrivano, perché solo ora che erano liberi, si rendevano conto di aver vissuto per mesi come animali. In qualche modo si sentivano colpevoli per non aver fatto niente o non abbastanza contro un sistema disumano nel quale erano stati assorbiti. Anche se in alcuni Lager era possibile un minimo di resistenza attiva, nella maggioranza dei casi, la denutrizione, le violenze, le umiliazioni, prima di distruggere, paralizzavano.                                   
Nelle vittime un’altra causa, estremamente realistica di “vergogna”, è nella consapevolezza di essere stati mancanti sotto l’aspetto della solidarietà umana.

Una delle principali regole nei Lager era quella di badare prima di tutto a se stessi. Questo aver cambiato radicalmente una regola morale incisa nella propria cultura d’appartenenza e quindi essere stati ridotti al puro egoismo, sarà sentito come un senso di colpa per essere sopravvissuto al posto di un altro, sicuramente un uomo migliore di te.

I sopravvissuti sentono su di sé la “vergogna del mondo”, cioè il dolore per le colpe che altri hanno commesso. Soffrono perché si rendono conto che il genere umano, di cui fanno parte, è capace di costruire una mole infinita di dolore ed inutile violenza.  

Levi soffermandosi su tale violenza, ne mette in luce lo scopo terribile della morte, dell’assassinio, della guerra e della distruzione. Ma nei Lager vi era anche una forma di violenza inutile, quasi sempre tesa cioè solo a produrre mera sofferenza nei prigionieri: il nemico non solo doveva morire, ma morire nel tormento. 

Iniziava da un treno merci piombato, sovraffollato spesso all’inverosimile, completamente “nudo” (né viveri, né acqua, né coperte, né latrine). Era sul treno che iniziava la trasformazione da esseri umani in animali, partendo dall’offesa al pudore e dalla costrizione escrementizia.

La nudità che li faceva sentire senza difesa “come un lombrico, nudo, lento, ignobile, prono al suolo, pronto per essere schiacciato“.

La mancanza di un cucchiaio, che obbligava a “lappare la zuppa come i cani“. L’appello, un conteggio laborioso e complicato che avveniva con qualsiasi condizione di tempo all’aperto, durava ore e vi dovevano partecipare anche i feriti e i morti. Il tatuaggio, numero di matricola dei prigionieri inciso sull’avambraccio sinistro; operazione poco dolorosa, ma traumatica: il marchio che si imprime agli schiavi e agli animali destinati al macello. Il lavoro, usato con lo scopo di umiliare. I test medici, con sperimentazione di nuovi preparati su cavie umane, torture insensate, oltraggio persino delle spoglie umane dopo la morte. Erano i prigionieri a caricare sui carri le spoglie mortali dalle “docce a gas”. Gli stessi prigionieri li ponevano nei forni crematori che, sempre in attività, appestavano l’aria di fumo nero e acre.

Primo Levi, sembrava si fosse pacificato con tutto questo, scrivendo: “Se questo è un uomo” e ne “La tregua”, tentativi forse per metabolizzare e accettare il ruolo di “scampato”, il ruolo di “vivo”, e sembrava quasi che ci fosse riuscito, agli occhi del mondo, quando pubblicò “I sommersi e i salvati”, un libro diverso dai precedenti in cui si riproponeva l’intento di comprendere quei meccanismi inumani per analizzarli, per evitare che quanto era successo potesse accadere ancora.

E allora, cosa rende un uomo un carnefice e cosa rende un uomo vittima?

Quali sono i sistemi autoritari che permettono la realizzazione di equilibri disumani, in cui l’obiettivo primo è quello di annientare la personalità dell’altro, sottometterlo, umiliarlo, annullarlo completamente?! 

Perché le vittime non si ribellarono, perché nessuno si scandalizzò o si oppose?

Con questo racconto, nel 1986, Levi pareva essersi riconciliato con se stesso. Quasi alla fine di un percorso interiore che sembrava suggerire una speranza, forse lontana, forse insufficiente.                      

Per sua scelta o forse per cause accidentali, Primo Levi morirà l’anno dopo. 

(by Admin)       

 

Riferimenti bibliografici:

Battacchi M. W. (2002), Vergogna e senso di colpa, in psicologia e nella letteratura, Milano, Raffaello Cortina editore.

Levi P. (1986), I sommersi e i salvati, collana Gli Struzzi, Einaudi.

 

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